Nanostructured high-entropy alloys by mechanical alloying: A review of principles and magnetic properties

Document Type : Review Paper


School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The principles and magnetic properties of nanostructured high-entropy alloys (HEAs) processed by mechanical alloying are overviewed. Firstly, the general concepts of HEAs (multi-principal element alloys with ≥5 elements) and phase formation rules are briefly reviewed. Subsequently, the processing of nanocrystalline and amorphous HEAs by mechanical alloying and the effect of high-energy ball milling parameters are summarized. Finally, the magnetic properties of nanostructured HEAs are critically discussed to infer some general rules. In summary, a higher content of ferromagnetic elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) normally results in a higher saturation magnetization. The as-milled products with solid solution phases show better soft-magnetic properties compared to the fully amorphous phases, and increasing the amount of the amorphous phase decreases the saturation magnetization. The magnetic properties are also influenced by processing (such as sintering) and thermal history through the alteration of phases and crystallite size.