Processing and Characterization of Natural Hydroxyapatite Powder from Bovine Bone

Document Type : Research Paper


School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


In this paper, hydroxyapatite powder is produced via annealing of Bovine bone. The as received bovine bone was annealed at three different temperatures of 400 ℃, 700 ℃, and 1000 ℃ after a primary preparation stage. The powders obtained from annealed bovine bone were analyzed and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the annealed bone at 1000℃ is pure hydroxyapatite, at 700 ℃, it is mostly hydroxyapatite, and at 400℃, there are not enough hydroxyapatite crystals. The morphology of the samples was analyzed by SEM. It was observed that the bone annealed at 1000 ℃ exhibits human bone-like matrix particle shapes while at 400 ℃, and 700 ℃, the irregular shape exists. EDX analysis showed that Ca, P, C, and O were detected in the samples, while Ca and P were the major components. Also, the Ca/P ratios were more than 1.67, which is the ratio of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite.


17. Lamsihar Manalu J, Soegijono B, Indrani DJ. Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Derived from Bovine Bone. Asian J Appl Sci 2015;03:2321-0893.