Mechano-chemical activation of MoO3-CuO/C powder mixture to synthesis nano crystalline Mo-Cu alloy

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.

2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University.

Abstract

In this study, a high energy planetary ball milling technique was used to synthesize nano-crystalline Mo-Cu alloys. Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) and copper oxide (CuO) were used as the starting materials. Carbo-thermal co-reduction of mixed Mo and Cu oxides powders was done with milling followed by a heat treatment at a high temperature. Differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric (DTA/TG) was used to determine the heat treatment temperature of activated powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to investigate the phase structure during the milling and heat treatment. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has been employed to investigate the morphology of powder particles. It was found that the complete carbo-thermal reduction of the oxides mixture may not be possible by the mechanical milling at the ambient temperature and based on thermodynamic investigations, thermal activation was necessary to reduce a MoO3-CuO mixture to a metallic structure. Some peaks at 400, 600 and 950 °C from DTG results of the mixture sample milled for 10 h were observed which were related to the Cu6Mo5O18, MoO2-Cu and Mo formation during carbo-thermal reduction of the MoO3-CuO mixture, respectively. XRD results showed 10 h milled sample after reduction at 1000 °C contained nano-crystalline Mo-Cu alloys with a mean crystallite size of 42 nm for Mo and 37 nm for Cu calculated by the Scherrer equation.

Keywords


  1. Sun A, Wang D, Wu Z, Li L, Wang J, Duan B. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Mo–Cu nano-powders at an ultra-low temperature and their sintering properties. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2014;148(3):494-8.
  2. Yao J-T, Li C-J, Li Y, Chen B, Huo H-B. Relationships between the properties and microstructure of Mo–Cu composites prepared by infiltrating copper into flame-sprayed porous Mo skeleton. Materials & Design. 2015;88:774-80.
  3. Wang D, Dong X, Zhou P, Sun A, Duan B. The sintering behavior of ultra-fine Mo–Cu composite powders and the sintering properties of the composite compacts. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. 2014;42:240-5.
  4. Ke S, Feng K, Zhou H, Shui Y. Sintering process and particles migration mechanism of rapid sintering of W–Cu composites. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2017;32(12):1398-402.
  5. Shi S, Jin Z, Bao Y, Jiang G. Study of Milling Time and Process Control Agent on W–Mo–Cr Pre-Alloying Powders. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2015;31(7):926-32.
  6. Johnson JL. Activated liquid phase sintering of W–Cu and Mo–Cu. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. 2015;53:80-6.
  7. Aydinyan SV, Kirakosyan HV, Kharatyan SL. Cu–Mo composite powders obtained by combustion–coreduction process. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. 2016;54:455-63.
  8. Sun A, Dong X, Wang X, Duan B, Wang D. Synthesis of novel core–shell Cu@Mo nanoparticles with good sinterability. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2013;555:6-9.
  9. Subject index. Non-equilibrium Processing of Materials: Elsevier; 1999. p. 419-38.
  10. Aguilar C, Guzman D, Rojas PA, Ordoñez S, Rios R. Simple thermodynamic model of the extension of solid solution of Cu–Mo alloys processed by mechanical alloying. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2011;128(3):539-42.
  11. Tan Z, Xue Y-f, Cheng X-w, Zhang L, Chen W-w, Wang L, et al. Effect of element fitting on composition optimization of Al–Cu–Ti amorphous alloy by mechanical alloying. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2015;25(10):3348-53.
  12. Yan J-w, Liu Y, Peng Af, Lu Q-g. Fabrication of nano-crystalline W-Ni-Fe pre-alloyed powders by mechanical alloying technique. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2009;19:s711-s7.
  13. Wang TG, Liang QC, Qin Q. Microstructure and properties of Mo–Cu alloys produced by powder metallurgy. Materials Research Innovations. 2015;19(sup5):S5-1150-S5-2.
  14. Martínez VdP, Aguilar C, Marín J, Ordoñez S, Castro F. Mechanical alloying of Cu–Mo powder mixtures and thermodynamic study of solubility. Materials Letters. 2007;61(4-5):929-33.
  15. Sabooni S, Mousavi T, Karimzadeh F. Thermodynamic analysis and characterisation of nanostructured Cu(Mo) compounds prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent sintering. Powder Metallurgy. 2012;55(3):222-7.
  16. Xi S, Zuo K, Li X, Ran G, Zhou J. Study on the solid solubility extension of Mo in Cu by mechanical alloying Cu with amorphous Cr(Mo). Acta Materialia. 2008;56(20):6050-60.
  17. Aguilar C, Ordóñez S, Marín J, Castro F, Martínez V. Study and methods of analysis of mechanically alloyed Cu–Mo powders. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2007;464(1-2):288-94.
  18. Shkodich NF, Rogachev AS, Mukasyan AS, Moskovskikh DO, Kuskov KV, Schukin AS, et al. Preparation of copper–molybdenum nanocrystalline pseudoalloys using a combination of mechanical activation and spark plasma sintering techniques. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2017;11(1):173-9.
  19. Sabooni S, Mousavi T, Karimzadeh F. Mechanochemical assisted synthesis of Cu(Mo)/Al2O3 nanocomposite. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2010;497(1-2):95-9.
  20. Yang H, McCormick PG. Mechanically activated reduction of nickel oxide with graphite. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 1998;29(2):449-55.
  21. Zhang DL, Zhang YJ. Chemical reactions between vanadium oxides and carbon during high energy ball milling. Journal of materials science letters. 1998 Jul 1;17(13):1113-5.
  22. Sheibani S, Ataie A, Heshmati-Manesh S. Role of process control agent on synthesis and consolidation behavior of nano-crystalline copper produced by mechano-chemical route. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2008;465(1-2):78-82.
  23. Saghafi M, Ataie A, Heshmati-Manesh S. Effects of mechanical activation of MoO3/C powder mixture in the processing of nano-crystalline molybdenum. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. 2011;29(4):419-23.
  24. Cullity BD, Smoluchowski R. Elements of X‐Ray Diffraction. Physics Today. 1957;10(3):50-.
  25. Gaskell DR. Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials, Fifth Edition. CRC Press; 2008.
  26. Heidarpour A, Karimzadeh F, Enayati MH. In situ synthesis mechanism of Al2O3–Mo nanocomposite by ball milling process. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2009;477(1-2):692-5.
  27. Ying DY, Zhang DL. Processing of Cu–Al2O3 metal matrix nanocomposite materials by using high energy ball milling. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2000;286(1):152-6.
  28. Chaudhury S, Mukerjee SK, Vaidya VN, Venugopal V. Kinetics and mechanism of carbothermic reduction of MoO3 to Mo2C. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 1997;261(1-2):105-13.
  29. Gruner W. Determination of oxygen in oxides by carrier gas hot extraction analysis with simultaneous CO x detection. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 1999;365(7):597-603.
  30. Gruner W, Stolle S, Wetzig K. Formation of COx species during the carbothermal reduction of oxides of Zr, Si, Ti, Cr, W, and Mo. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials. 2000;18(2-3):137-45.